Our ancestors the Gauls ate meats, cereals, beans and many ANIMALS (Wild boar, deer, bear, beaver, pig, wolf, fish,
etc.). they seasoned with cumin, black pepper, honey and vinegar but also (under Roman influence) with wine or defrutum (mulled wine) and a kind of fish sauce (garum or Liquamen).
In the Middle Ages, the sauces are thickened with bread or almonds. They are based on vinegar or verjuice (unripe grape) for acids, and sweet-and-sour when they are sweetened with honey or dried fruit. Fish are served in jelly or with a wine sauce.
During the Renaissance, once again under the influence of the Italians, the tableware make their apparition, they eat no more with the fingers, the kitchen becomes delicate and refined.
In the seventeenth century, sauces begin to be thickened with flour. Between the eighteenth and nineteenth century, stocks and smoked are at their peak.
In the early twentieth, the sauce ‘espagnole’ (roux and brown sauce) are used as the basis for many sauces, which already represents a standardization of taste in the eyes of Auguste Escoffier. (“Guide Culinaire “).
Today, the sauces are lighter and obtained by reduction with or without binding the roux.
In French cuisine, the bases are codified. Can be distinguished:
– Clear stocks
– The consommes
– The aromas
– The basic sauces
– Marinades and brines
– Broths Court-Bouillon
– Essence, glace and demi-glace
There are hundreds of sauces identified (although different versions exist) and wine or vinegar often enter into their composition.
Some sauces with red wine
Red wine sauce – Fish stock reduction with red wine (offcuts from lean fish, water, red wine, butter, carrots, thyme, lemon juice, shallots, mushroom trimmings, onions, leeks, pepper, bouquet garni), kneaded butter.
Bordelaise sauce – Veal stock, shallots, red wine (Medoc for example), thyme, bay leaf, pepper, beef marrow, butetr
Bourguignonne Sauce – Red wine (burgundy), shallots, onions, mushroom, bouquet garni, pepper, kneaded butter, butter.
Maitre de Chai sauce – Veal, red wine, butter, shallots, juice of lemon, optionally chocolate.
Sauce Marchand de vin – Stock, red wine, juice from the meat (or fish), kneaded butter, butter.
Matelote sauce – Broth with red wine (fish poached in water, wine, carrots, onions, salt, pepper), reduction of the sauce
espagnole (light brown veal, butter, pork belly, carrots, onions, tomatoes, bouquet garni, roux), butter.
Preparation time: 20 minutes
Cooking time: 45 minutes
Ingredients (for 4 people):
– 60 g shallots
– 1 small handful of coarse ground pepper
– 1/2 bottle of red wine
– 1 nut of butter
– 15 cl beef stock, or cooking juices
– 1 nut of butter and a tablespoon of flour
Preparation of the recipe:
In a saucepan, sauté the chopped shallots first with cracked pepper.
Add the wine and the stock (or a little water), reduce to simmer for three quarters of an hour.
In a small saucepan, prepare the roux to thicken the sauce: jufor st a few minutes, cook the flour in the butter.
Gradually add this to the sauce.
The sauce can wait a few minutes in a warm place.